8 Technology updates

Cloud computing. Using applications and storage in the “cloud”, instead of “on premise”, is fast becoming a cost effective alternative for enterprises. In the new setting, enterprises are likely to rely on Software-as-service (SaaS) for non-core processes allowing CIOs to focus on core processes, and save significant costs in license fees, support and maintenance.

Green IT. Enterprises will invest in technologies and solutions for compliance to regulations in the Green space, to become energy efficient and reduce carbon foot prints. Incidentally, Green IT also helps enterprises lower operating costs.

Open-source software (OSS) has established its role firmly in the IT industry, even though the rate of maturity and saturation-levels vary across market segments. Thus, most mainstream IT organizations are blending the best of open-source and closed-source solutions.

is an important aspect of an enterprise today. It reduces the human latency in business processes and improves both cost efficiency and customer experience. The underlying technology is based on unified communications which integrates all the channels of voice and non voice communication over IP.

Social computing There is an emerging demand for integrating data in enterprise IT systems with that in social networks, to improve or promote, campaign management, community driven discounting, and intercontinental connections.

Information management is an important aspect of new enterprise as it is moving from a structured data model (text heavy and relational) to unstructured data model (multi modal and search driven).

in an enterprise is very closely linked to collaboration and social computing. With the exponential rise in the types of mobile devices and their usage in enterprises, it is fast becoming a social experience challenge in a business environment.

10 Tech Skills an IT professional Should Develop to Survive -TechRepublic

If you want a job where you can train in a particular skill set and then never have to learn anything new, IT
isn’t the field for you. But if you like to be constantly learning new things and developing new skills, you’re in
the right business. In the late 80s, NetWare and IPX/SPX administration were the skills to have. Today, it’s
all about TCP/IP and the Internet.
Let’s take a look at some of the skills you should be thinking about developing to keep on top of things in
the tech world in the next five years.
#1: Voice over IP
Many companies and consumers are already using VoIP for telephone services due to cost and
convenience factors. According to a SearchVoIP.com article in June 2007, sales of pure IP PBX systems
for the first quarter of 2007 increased 76% over the first quarter of the previous year.
More and more companies are expected to go to VoIP, to either supplement or replace their traditional
phone lines. And because VoIP runs on the TCP/IP network, IT administrators will in many cases be
expected to take responsibility for VoIP implementation and ongoing administration.
#2: Unified communications
Along with the growing popularity of VoIP, the concept of unified communications — the convergence of
different communications technologies, such as e-mail, voicemail, text messaging, and fax — looks to be
the wave of the future. Users will expect to have access to all their communications from a single interface,
such as their Inbox, and from a variety of devices: PCs, laptops, smart phones/PDAs, traditional phones,
Convergence makes networks more complex, and IT administrators will need to develop skills for managing
converged networks to compete in tomorrow’s job market.
#3: Hybrid networks

The day of the all-Windows or all-UNIX network is already past, and networks are likely to grow more,
rather than less hybridized in the future. As new versions of Linux, such as Ubuntu, become friendlier for
end users, we’re likely to see some organizations deploying it on the desktop for certain users. However,
it’s likely that other users will continue to use Windows because of application requirements and/or personal
preferences, and there may very well be Macintosh users in the mix as well, especially in graphics
IT pros will no longer be able to get by with expertise in only one platform; you’ll need to be able to support
and troubleshoot different operating systems.
#4: Wireless technology
Wireless networking is still in its infancy in the enterprise. Companies are (often grudgingly) establishing
wireless LANs for the use of employees and visitors because it’s the most convenient way for portable
computers to connect to the network, but many organizations are still wary of wireless (rightly so),
particularly its security implications.
But wireless isn’t going away, and the future promises faster and more secure wireless technologies. You’ll
need to know about 802.11n, a new standard now in development and estimated to be released in late
2008, which will provide for a typical throughput of 74 Mbps with a theoretical maximum data rate of 248
Mbps and a longer range than current 802.11a/b/g standards (about 70 meters, or approximately 230 feet).
#5: Remote user support
The trend is toward more employees working off-site: executives taking their laptops on the road,
telecommuters working from home at least a few days per week, personnel in the field connecting back to
the LAN, and so forth. The IT staff will need to be able to support these remote users while maintaining the
security of the internal network.
It will be important to learn skills relating to different VPN technologies (including SSL VPN) and
technologies for health monitoring and quarantining of remote clients to prevent those that don’t meet
minimal criteria (antivirus installed and updated, firewall enabled, etc.) from connecting to the LAN and
putting the rest of the network at risk.
#6: Mobile user support
Cell phones, Blackberries, and other ultra-portable devices are becoming ubiquitous and will likely grow
more sophisticated in the future. Employees will expect to get their corporate e-mail on their phones and in
some cases (such as Windows Mobile devices), to use terminal services client software to connect these
small devices to the company LAN.
IT staff members will need to develop a plethora of skills to support mobile users, including expertise in
configuration of mail servers and knowledge of security implications of the devices.
#7: Software as a service
Web 2.0, the next generation of the Internet, is all about SaaS, or Software as a Service. SaaS involves
delivering applications over the Web, rather than installing those applications on individual users’ machines.
Some IT pundits have warned that SaaS will do away with IT administrators’ jobs entirely, but the more
likely scenario is that the job description will change to one with less focus on deployment and maintenance
of applications and more emphasis on broader-based planning, convergence, etc.
If SaaS takes off, the job market may also shift so that more jobs are concentrated in the application
provider sector rather than in companies’ in-house IT departments. In that situation, IT pros who have the
skills relating to service provision and multi-tenant architecture will have a head start when it comes to
getting and staying employed.
#8: Virtualization
Virtualization has been around for a while, but now, with Microsoft heavily investing in the technology with
its Windows hypervisor (Viridian), which will run on Windows Server 2008, VMWare offering VMWare
Server for free, and Red Hat and SuSE planning to include Xen hypervisor technology in the next versions
of their server products, we can expect the concept of virtual machines to go to a whole new level in the
next few years.
Managing a VM-based network environment is a skill that will be not just handy, but essential, as more and
more companies look to virtualization to consolidate servers and save on hardware costs.
#9: IPv6
Widespread adoption of the next generation of the Internet Protocol (IPv6) hasn’t come about as quickly as
originally predicted, in large part because technologies such as NAT prevented the depletion of available IP
addresses from happening as soon as anticipated.
However, with the number of hosts on the Internet growing steadily, the larger address space will eventually
be critical to further expansion. IPv6 also offers better security with IPsec, a part of the basic protocol suite.
Perhaps the inevitability of the transition is best indicated by the fact that Windows Vista, Windows Server
2008, Mac OS X 10.3, and the latest versions of other operating systems have IPv6 enabled by default.
With an entirely different address notation, called CIDR, and addresses written in hexadecimal instead of
the familiar four octets of decimal numbers used by IPv4, there will be a learning curve for IT administrators.
The time to tune up your IPv6 skills is now, before the transition becomes mandatory.
#10: Security
Smart IT pros have been developing their security skills for the last several years, but the future will bring
new security challenges and new security mechanisms. Technologies such as VoIP and mobile computing
bring new security issues and challenges. Authentication methods are evolving from a password-based
model to multifactor models and biometrics are likely to become more important in the future.
As threats become more sophisticated, shifting from teenage hackers defacing Web sites “just for fun” to
well financed corporate espionage agents and cyberterrorists bent on bringing down the country’s vital
infrastructure by attacking the networks that run it, security skills must keep up.
In addition to proactive measures, IT pros will need to know more about computer forensics and be able to
track what is happening and has happened on their networks.

what are common runlevel values on RHEL

0. Halt
1. Single user mode
6. Reboot
3. Default text
5. Default GUI

What command is used to check a file system for errors?


Apache doesn't start up on boot, and the thing above checks out okay. How do you track down the problem?

chkconfig httpd on
httpd -t
service httpd on
netstat -tulpn | grep 80
tail -f /var/log/httpd/access_log
tail -f /var/log/httpd/error_log

Name as many shells as you can (or) How many SHELL are there in Unix/Linux

== Shells ==
* Name as many shells as you can.
Bourne shell (sh)
Almquist shell (ash)
Debian Almquist shell (dash)
Bourne-Again shell (bash)
Friendly interactive shell (fish)
Korn shell (ksh)
C shell (csh)
TENEX C shell (tcsh)
Es shell (e
esh (Unix) Easy Shell
rc shell (rc) - shell for Plan 9 and Unix
runscript The initial shell interpreter used to process startup scripts in Gentoo
scsh (Scheme Shell)
Stand-alone Shell (sash)
Z shell (zsh)

* After u answer that question they may ask " What's your favorite shell? Why? "
bash - it rocks and feature rich.

What command is used to list the top 10 files / directories size wise?

for X in $(du -s * | sort -nr | cut -f 2); do du -hs $X ; done

I have a file named `-fr`. How do I get rid of it?

rm -- -fr
rm \-rf

What's the difference between `telnet` and `ssh`? What's a good use for each?

TELNET, by default, does not encrypt any data sent over the connection (including password, and so it is often practical to eavesdrop on the communications and use the password later for malicious purposes;
SSH by default encrypt password and traffic. SSH is recommended for all use.

What is the default Window system / Windows manager used in Linux?


What command will display the first several lines of a file called "junk"?

head junk
man head

To display a list of all manual pages containing the keyword "date", what command would you type?

man -k date
man -f date

How can you find out how many users are currently logged into the database? How can you find their operating system id?

There are several ways. One is to look at the v$session or v$process views. Another way is to check the current_logins parameter in the v$sysstat view. Another if you are on UNIX is to do a "ps -ef|grep oracle|wc -l? command, but this only works against a single instance installation.

Vi Editor Basics

Although there are many posts and articles on this Vi editor, I felt its Absolutely necessary for beginners to learn this so posting this in my blog
■Search Start with a backslash, followed by the search term. Remember,
Linux is case sensitive, so if you’re searching for “Naresh” in /etc/passwd,
use the /Naresh (not /naresh) command.
■ Write To save your changes, use the w command. You can combine
commands; for example, wq writes the file and exits vi.
■ Quit To leave vi, use the q command. If you want to abandon any changes
that you’ve made, use the q! command.
■Edit You can use a number of commands to edit files through vi, such as x,
which deletes the currently highlighted character, dw, which deletes the currently
highlighted word, and dd, which deletes the current line. Remember, p places
text from a buffer, and u restores text from a previous change.
■ Insert A number of commands allow you to start insert mode, including
i to start inserting text at the current position of the editor, and o to open up
a new line immediately below the current position of the cursor.

Oracle Database Structure

Oracle database physical structure consist of-

1.Control files,
2.Data files,
3.Redo log files.

Additional files are- Parameter file, Password file, Archive log files.

The logical structure consist of-

4.Data blocks,
5.Operating system blocks.

A Detailed Guide to the SPFILE

For centuries, Oracle has been maintaining a text file called the pfile to store the database initialization parameters, which would be read at the time of instance startup to get the characteristics of the instance that has to be created by Oracle for the specified database. Any changes made to this pfile would only take effect when you restart the database; however, parameters that were dynamically alterable could be changed using the appropriate ALTER SYSTEM or ALTER SESSION statement, which would take effect immediately.

Nevertheless, it should be mentioned that these parameters would need to be set every time you restarted the instance, because parameters altered in this process would be lasting for the lifetime of the instance or the session depending on the type of the statement issued.

To overcome his limitation Oracle has come up with a new feature called the spfile (server parameter file).

The spfile can be thought of as a control file that is used by Oracle to store the initialization parameters. Oracle writes to and reads from this binary file. The spfile is a server-side initialization parameter file; parameters stored in this file are persistent across database startups. This makes all the changes made to the instance using the ALTER SYSTEM statement persistent. So, goodbye to manual edits to the pfile. However, Oracle requires that you start an instance for the first time using the pfile and then create the spfile, which is discussed later in the article.

Oracle strongly recommends that you create the spfile as a dynamic means of storing the initialization parameters.
Creating the spfile

By default a database would be working on a pfile, so the spfile must be created from the pfile at the SQL prompt. However, the database starts using the spfile only when you later restart the database using the spfile created. The spfile is created using the CREATE SPFILE statement; this requires the SYSDBA or SYSOPER privileges.


This is the simplest form of the CREATE SPFILE statement. It creates a spfile in the default directory (O/S dependant, usually $ORACLE_HOME/ dbs/ on unix platforms) from the pfile located in the default directory. The file is named spfile$ORACLE_ SID.ora. If a spfile already exists in the destination directory, it is over written, however if it's in use by the instance, then it returns the following error:

ERROR at line 1:
ORA-32002: cannot create SPFILE already being used by the instance

The following CREATE SPFILE creates a spfile in a non-default location from a pfile located in a non-default location; if the path in the SPFILE or PFILE clause is not specified, Oracle uses the default directory as the path.

SQL> CREATE SPFILE='d:\spfile_ mydb.ora' FROM

2 PFILE='d:\oemrep\ admin\initOEMREP .ora';

Bug: After a spfile is created when you shutdown the database to startup again, you'll encounter an error, which makes you log in again and then use the STARTUP command. Look at the test scenario below:

SQL> CREATE SPFILE='d:\spfile_ mydb.ora' FROM
2 PFILE='d:\oemrep\ admin\initOEMREP .ora';

File created.
SQL> shutdown immediate;
Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> startup
ORA-03113: end-of-file on communication channel

Version: This bug exists in: Oracle9i Enterprise Edition Release -- Production version.

Workaround: All you have to do is reconnect as SYSDBA and use the STARTUP command, until a patch is available.

Making use of the spfile

Now that the spfile is ready, we'll have to make the database use it. It can be done in various ways as discussed below. The default behavior of the STARTUP command has changed in Oracle9i; the command now searches for the following files in this order:

1. Search for the spfile$ORACLE_ SID.ora file in the default location,
2. If it does not exist, it looks for the spfile.ora; and
3. If this file is not found either, then it searches for the pfile by name init$ORACLE_ SID.ora.

Starting the database with pfile/spfile

As discussed earlier, by default Oracle starts looking for the spfile in the default location. If you want to override this and start your database with a pfile you have two options for this--either you delete the spfile and startup your database (pfile should be located in the default path), or you use the PFILE option of the STARTUP command as follows:

SQL> startup pfile='d:\spfile_ mydb.ora' ;

You cannot start the database by specifying spfile in place of pfile in the previous command--Oracle does not allow this. Optionally, you can create a pfile containing SPFILE parameter in it that will be pointing to the location of the spfile as explained below.

A new initialization parameter called the SPFILE was introduced in Oracle9i. This is similar to the IFILE parameter which is used as a pointer to a non-default pfile. The SPFILE parameter is used to specify the path of spfile located in a non-default location. This is useful when your spfile is not located in the default location. This can also be used in conjunction with other parameters in the pfile, i.e. you may specify the location of the spfile and add some more parameters to the pfile. However, the pfile is read sequentially; if you duplicate a parameter in the spfile and the pfile, then the parameter value that is read last will take precedence over others. Look at the following scenario:

You set timed_statistics= true in the pfile and timed_statistics= false in the spfile.

#Contents of the pfile
SPFILE='d:\oemrep\ admin\initOEMREP .ora'

Now if you specify the SPFILE parameter at the beginning of the pfile, then TIMED_STATISTICS= FALSE is read first from the spfile and later it goes on reading the TIMED_STATISTICS= TRUE specified in the pfile which takes precedence.
Modifying the Contents of spfile

Modifying the contents of spfile can be done in two ways -- either by using the ALTER SYSTEM statement or by exporting and importing back the spfile (which is discussed in later sections). The parameters you alter using the ALTER SYSTEM statement get stored in the spfile unlike the pfile, which has to be manually edited.

The ALTER SYSTEM statement has a new option called the SCOPE, which can have three values which are explained below.

Optionally, you can specify whether the change of the parameter has to be made only for the life of this instance without making it permanent in the spfile:

SQL> SHOW PARAMETER timed_statistics

------------ --------- --------- ------ ----------- ---------
timed_statistics boolean FALSE

System altered.

SQL> SHOW PARAMETER timed_statistics

------------ --------- --------- ------ ----------- ---------
timed_statistics boolean TRUE

SQL> startup FORCE
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 63729356 bytes
Fixed Size 282316 bytes
Variable Size 46137344 bytes
Database Buffers 16777216 bytes
Redo Buffers 532480 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.

SQL> SHOW PARAMETER timed_statistics

------------ --------- --------- ------ ----------- ---------
timed_statistics boolean FALSE


If you want to make a change to a parameter in the spfile without affecting the current instance, you can do so using the SCOPE=SPFILE option of the ALTER SYSTEM statement. This is useful when you want to make a change starting from the next startup and not for the current instance. Look at the following example:

SQL> SHOW PARAMETER timed_statistics

------------ --------- --------- ------ ----------- ---------
timed_statistics boolean FALSE


System altered.

SQL> SHOW PARAMETER timed_statistics

------------ --------- --------- ------ ----------- ---------
timed_statistics boolean FALSE

ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 63729356 bytes
Fixed Size 282316 bytes
Variable Size 46137344 bytes
Database Buffers 16777216 bytes
Redo Buffers 532480 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.

SQL> SHOW PARAMETER timed_statistics

------------ --------- --------- ------ ----------- ---------
timed_statistics boolean TRUE

Specifying SCOPE=BOTH

By using the SCOPE=BOTH option with the ALTER SYSTEM statement, the parameter takes affect both in the current instance and the spfile simultaneously. This is equivalent to not specifying the SCOPE option with the ALTER SYSTEM statement. But, if it is a static parameter you are trying to alter, then you will have to execute it with the SCOPE=SPFILE option which will come into effect when you restart the database. Look at the following example:


------------ --------- --------- ------ ----------- ------------ ---
audit_trail string NONE

ERROR at line 1:
ORA-02095: specified initialization parameter cannot be modified


System altered.


The exact contents of the SPFILE can be obtained from the V$SPPARAMETER dynamic performance view. Let's look at it to get a feel of it:

System altered.
SQL> SELECT name, value FROM v$parameter
2 WHERE name='timed_ statistics' ;
------------ -------- ------------ ---------
timed_statistics TRUE
SQL> SELECT name, value FROM v$spparameter
2 WHERE name='timed_ statistics' ;
------------ -------- ------------ ---------
timed_statistics FALSE

Is my database using spfile?

Just in case you want to know whether you are using the spfile or the pfile, follow the procedure below. Execute any of the queries given below:

This query returns NULL in the value column if you are using the pfile.

SQL> SELECT name, value FROM v$parameter
2 WHERE name = 'spfile';

---------- ------------ --------- --------- --------- --------- --

Alternatively, use the following query, which returns NULL in the value column if you are using pfile and not spfile:


------- ------- ------------ --------- ---------

On the other hand, you may check for the count of the following query; if the count is non-zero then the instance is using a spfile, and if the count is zero then it is using a pfile:

SQL> SELECT COUNT(*) FROM v$spparameter WHERE value IS NOT NULL;

Exporting the spfile

Exporting the spfile to a text file is possible using the CREATE PFILE command. This might be useful when you want to add parameters to the pfile or to the spfile. In case you want to add parameters to the spfile, just export the file using the statement given below. This will create a pfile with all the initialization parameters from the current spfile of the database. Edit the pfile, restart the database using this pfile and then recreate the spfile, after which you will have to restart the database using the spfile.


File created.

Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.

The pfile is created at the path specified in the PFILE option. Now you edit the pfile as you wish and start the database using this file.

SQL> STARTUP PFILE='d:\init. ora'
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 63729356 bytes
Fixed Size 282316 bytes
Variable Size 46137344 bytes
Database Buffers 16777216 bytes
Redo Buffers 532480 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.

Create the new spfile from the pfile (it is created in the default location).


File created.

Restart the database to start using the newly created spfile.

ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 63729356 bytes
Fixed Size 282316 bytes
Variable Size 46137344 bytes
Database Buffers 16777216 bytes
Redo Buffers 532480 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.

Tip: Adding comments to the spfile

When you create an spfile from a pfile, Comments, which are specified in the pfile, are ignored and not stored in the new spfile. Export an spfile to a pfile and open it, you'll see the result. However, there is a workaround here comments added on the same line of the parameter are not omitted. Look at the following example:

#This is set to FALSE
timed_statistics= FALSE

The comment specified above would be omitted at the time of spfile creation.

timed_statistics= FALSE #This is set to FALSE

On the other hand, this comment would be added to the spfile and will be exported into pfile at the time of spfile export.

This should explain well how to add consistent comments to your spfile.

Migrating to Oracle9i SPFILE

Migrating to spfile from a pfile consists of 2 steps:


Create the spfile from the existing pfile using:

File created.


Restart the database to start using the newly created spfile.

ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 63729356 bytes
Fixed Size 282316 bytes
Variable Size 46137344 bytes
Database Buffers 16777216 bytes
Redo Buffers 532480 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.

Starting a remote database using a spfile

The spfile, being a server-side parameter file, cannot be placed on a client machine and make use of it. It has to be placed on the system where the RDBMS lies. However, if you intend to start a database which is using spfile remotely, then you have to place the pfile on the client's machine that has the parameter SPFILE in it, pointing to the spfile on the server. Once Oracle reads the pfile from the client-side, it searches for the spfile in the path specified in the SPFILE parameter on the server. I'm still working on this feature and will be posting updates soon.
Using the spfile on RAC

RAC (Real Application Server) in Oracle9i is the upgraded term of OPS (Oracle Parallel Server) in Oracle8i. For those who do not have an idea about parallel servers: Normally, one database has one instance associated to it. In parallel servers, one database is associated with more than one instance (i.e. instead of your 100 users connecting to one instance, 50 users will be connected to each instance in RAC setup [Load balancing]). Each instance will have a unique instance name. Remember that even though there are n instances, there is only ONE and only ONE spfile.

While changing initialization parameters, values can be set to a specific instance or to all instances. Let's assume that we are running an RAC with two instances, PROD and SALES. To change the TIMED_STATISTICS parameter to true for the SALES instance you do the following:

SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET timed_statistics= TRUE SID='sales';
System altered.

To set the seething to all the instances

SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET timed_statistics= FALSE SID='*';
System altered.

Oracle uses the following syntax to store parameter values belonging to different instances:


The two values respectively correspond to the values we have set with the previous set of commands. You may optionally use the SCOPE clause to specify it to a particular instance only without storing it in the spfile.

Linux Unix interview questions by -- Swathi

What are different categories of operating system?


OS Categories

Within the broad family of operating systems, there are generally four types, categorized based on the types of computers they control and the sort of applications they support. The broad categories are:
• Real-time operating system (RTOS) - Real-time operating systems are used to control machinery, scientific instruments and industrial systems. An RTOS typically has very little user-interface capability, and no end-user utilities, since the system will be a "sealed box" when delivered for use. A very important part of an RTOS is managing the resources of the computer so that a particular operation executes in precisely the same amount of time every time it occurs. In a complex machine, having a part move more quickly just because system resources are available may be just as catastrophic as having it not move at all because the system is busy.
• Single-user, single task - As the name implies, this operating system is designed to manage the computer so that one user can effectively do one thing at a time. The Palm OS for Palm handheld computers is a good example of a modern single-user, single-task operating system.
• Single-user, multi-tasking - This is the type of operating system most people use on their desktop and laptop computers today. Microsoft's Windows and Apple's MacOS platforms are both examples of operating systems that will let a single user have several programs in operation at the same time. For example, it's entirely possible for a Windows user to be writing a note in a word processor while downloading a file from the Internet while printing the text of an e-mail message.
• Multi-user - A multi-user operating system allows many different users to take advantage of the computer's resources simultaneously. The operating system must make sure that the requirements of the various users are balanced, and that each of the programs they are using has sufficient and separate resources so that a problem with one user doesn't affect the entire community of users. Unix/LINUX , VMS and mainframe operating systems, such as MVS, are examples of multi-user operating systems.

Describe the golden history of LINUX OS.


The roots of Linux can be traced back to the origins of Unix . In 1969, Ken Thompson of the Research Group at Bell Laboratories began experimenting on a multi-user, multi-tasking operating system using an otherwise idle PDP-7. He was soon joined by Dennis Richie and the two of them, along with other members of the Research Group produced the early versions of Unix. Richie was strongly influenced by an earlier project, MULTICS and the name Unix is itself a pun on the name MULTICS. Early versions were written in assembly code, but the third version was rewritten in a new programming language, C. C was designed and written by Richie expressly as a programming language for writing operating systems. This rewrite allowed Unix to move onto the more powerful PDP-11/45 and 11/70 computers then being produced by DIGITAL. The rest, as they say, is history. Unix moved out of the laboratory and into mainstream computing and soon most major computer manufacturers were producing their own versions.

Linux was the solution to a simple need. The only software that Linus Torvalds, Linux's author and principle maintainer was able to afford was Minix. Minix is a simple, Unix like, operating system widely used as a teaching aid. Linus was less than impressed with its features, his solution was to write his own software. He took Unix as his model as that was an operating system that he was familiar with in his day to day student life. He started with an Intel 386 based PC and started to write. Progress was rapid and, excited by this, Linus offered his efforts to other students via the emerging world wide computer networks, then mainly used by the academic community. Others saw the software and started contributing. Much of this new software was itself the solution to a problem that one of the contributors had. Before long, Linux had become an operating system. It is important to note that Linux contains no Unix code, it is a rewrite based on published POSIX standards. Linux is built with and uses a lot of the GNU (GNU's Not Unix ) software produced by the Free Software Foundation in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
What are different properties of Linux behind its popularity?


Properties of Linux

A lot of the advantages of Linux are a consequence of Linux' origins, deeply rooted in UNIX, except for the first advantage, of course:
§ Linux is free:
If you want to spend absolutely nothing, you don't even have to pay the price of a CD. Linux can be downloaded in its entirety from the Internet completely for free. No registration fees, no costs per user, free updates, and freely available source code in case you want to change the behavior of your system. The license commonly used is the GNU Public License (GPL). The license says that anybody who may want to do so, has the right to change Linux and eventually to redistribute a changed version, on the one condition that the code is still available after redistribution. In practice, you are free to grab a kernel image, for instance to add support for teletransportation machines or time travel and sell your new code, as long as your customers can still have a copy of that code.

• Linux is portable to any hardware platform:
A vendor who wants to sell a new type of computer and who doesn't know what kind of OS his new machine will run (say the CPU in your car or washing machine), can take a Linux kernel and make it work on his hardware, because documentation related to this activity is freely available.
• Linux was made to keep on running:
As with UNIX, a Linux system expects to run without rebooting all the time. That is why a lot of tasks are being executed at night or scheduled automatically for other calm moments, resulting in higher availability during busier periods and a more balanced use of the hardware. This property allows for Linux to be applicable also in environments where people don't have the time or the possibility to control their systems night and day.
• Linux is secure and versatile:
The security model used in Linux is based on the UNIX idea of security, which is known to be robust and of proven quality. But Linux is not only fit for use as a fort against enemy attacks from the Internet: it will adapt equally to other situations, utilizing the same high standards for security. Your development machine or control station will be as secure as your firewall.
• Linux is scalable:
From a Palmtop with 2 MB of memory to a petabyte storage cluster with hundreds of nodes: add or remove the appropriate packages and Linux fits all. You don't need a supercomputer anymore, because you can use Linux to do big things using the building blocks provided with the system. If you want to do little things, such as making an operating system for an embedded processor or just recycling your old 486, Linux will do that as well.

• The Linux OS and quite some Linux applications have very short debug-times:
Because Linux has been developed and tested by thousands of people, both errors and people to fix them are usually found rather quickly. It sometimes happens that there are only a couple of hours between discovery and fixing of a bug.

What are different popular Linux distributions?


Linux distributions
• RedHat
• Fedora Core
• Debian
• SuSE Linux
• Mandriva (former MandrakeSoft)
• Knoppix: an operating system that runs from your CD-ROM, you don't need to install anything.

How are devices represented in UNIX/Linux?


All devices are represented by files called special files that are located in/dev directory. Thus, device files and other files are named and accessed in the same way. A 'regular file' is just an ordinary data file in the disk. A 'block special file' represents a device with characteristics similar to a disk (data transfer in terms of blocks). A 'character special file' represents a device with characteristics similar to a keyboard (data transfer is by stream of bits in sequential order).

What is 'inode'?


All UNIX files have its description stored in a structure called 'inode'. The inode contains info about the file-size, its location, time of last access, time of last modification, permission and so on. Directories are also represented as files and have an associated inode. In addition to descriptions about the file, the inode contains pointers to the data blocks of the file. If the file is large, inode has indirect pointer to a block of pointers to additional data blocks (this further aggregates for larger files). A block is typically 8k.

Inode consists of the following fields:

* File owner identifier
* File type
* File access permissions
* File access times
* Number of links
* File size
* Location of the file data

Brief about the directory representation in UNIX


A Unix directory is a file containing a correspondence between filenames and inodes. A directory is a special file that the kernel maintains. Only kernel modifies directories, but processes can read directories. The contents of a directory are a list of filename and inode number pairs. When new directories are created, kernel makes two entries named '.' (refers to the directory itself) and '..' (refers to parent directory).

System call for creating directory is mkdir (pathname, mode).

What are the Unix system calls for I/O?


open(pathname,flag,mode) - open file
creat(pathname,mode) - create file
close(filedes) - close an open file
read(filedes,buffer,bytes) - read data from an open file
write(filedes,buffer,bytes) - write data to an open file
lseek(filedes,offset,from) - position an open file
dup(filedes) - duplicate an existing file descriptor
dup2(oldfd,newfd) - duplicate to a desired file descriptor
fcntl(filedes,cmd,arg) - change properties of an open file
ioctl(filedes,request,arg) - change the behaviour of an open file
The difference between fcntl anf ioctl is that the former is intended for any open file, while the latter is for device-specific operations.

How do you change File Access Permissions?


Every file has following attributes:
owner's user ID ( 16 bit integer )
owner's group ID ( 16 bit integer )
File access mode word
'r w x -r w x- r w x'
(user permission-group permission-others permission)
r-read, w-write, x-execute
To change the access mode, we use chmod(filename,mode).
Example 1:
To change mode of skpfile to 'rw-rw-r--' (ie. read, write permission for user - read,write permission for group - only read permission for others) we give the args as:
chmod(skpfile,0664) .
Each operation is represented by discrete values
'r' is 4
'w' is 2
'x' is 1
Therefore, for 'rw' the value is 6(4+2).
Example 2:
To change mode of skpfile to 'rwxr--r--' we give the args as:

What are links and symbolic links in UNIX file system?


A link is a second name (not a file) for a file. Links can be used to assign more than one name to a file, but cannot be used to assign a directory more than one name or link filenames on different computers.

Symbolic link 'is' a file that only contains the name of another file.Operation on the symbolic link is directed to the file pointed by the it.Both the limitations of links are eliminated in symbolic links.

Commands for linking files are:
Link: ln filename1 filename2
Symbolic link: ln -s filename1 filename2

What is a FIFO?


FIFO are otherwise called as 'named pipes'. FIFO (first-in-first-out) is a special file which is said to be data transient. Once data is read from named pipe, it cannot be read again. Also, data can be read only in the order written. It is used in interprocess communication where a process writes to one end of the pipe (producer) and the other reads from the other end (consumer).

How do you create special files like named pipes and device files?

The system call mknod creates special files in the following sequence.

1. kernel assigns new inode,
2. sets the file type to indicate that the file is a pipe, directory or special file,
3. If it is a device file, it makes the other entries like major, minor device numbers.

For example:

If the device is a disk, major device number refers to the disk controller and minor device number is the disk.

Discuss the mount and unmount system calls

The privileged mount system call is used to attach a file system to a directory of another file system; the unmount system call detaches a file system. When you mount another file system on to your directory, you are essentially splicing one directory tree onto a branch in another directory tree. The first argument to mount call is the mount point, that is , a directory in the current file naming system. The second argument is the file system to mount to that point. When you insert a cdrom to your unix system's drive, the file system in the cdrom automatically mounts to /dev/cdrom in your system.

How does the inode map to data block of a file?


Inode has 13 block addresses. The first 10 are direct block addresses of the first 10 data blocks in the file. The 11th address points to a one-level index block. The 12th address points to a two-level (double in-direction) index block. The 13th address points to a three-level(triple in-direction)index block. This provides a very large maximum file size with efficient access to large files, but also small files are accessed directly in one disk read.

What is a shell?


A shell is an interactive user interface to an operating system services that allows an user to enter commands as character strings or through a graphical user interface. The shell converts them to system calls to the OS or forks off a process to execute the command. System call results and other information from the OS are presented to the user through an interactive interface. Commonly used shells are sh,csh,ksh etc.

Brief about the initial process sequence while the system boots up.


While booting, special process called the 'swapper' or 'scheduler' is created with Process-ID 0. The swapper manages memory allocation for processes and influences CPU allocation. The swapper inturn creates 3 children:

the process dispatcher,
vhand and

with IDs 1,2 and 3 respectively.
This is done by executing the file /etc/init. Process dispatcher gives birth to the shell. Unix keeps track of all the processes in an internal data structure called the Process Table (listing command is ps -el).

What are various IDs associated with a process?


Unix identifies each process with a unique integer called ProcessID. The process that executes the request for creation of a process is called the 'parent process' whose PID is 'Parent Process ID'. Every process is associated with a particular user called the 'owner' who has privileges over the process. The identification for the user is 'UserID'. Owner is the user who executes the process. Process also has 'Effective User ID' which determines the access privileges for accessing resources like files.

getpid() -process id
getppid() -parent process id
getuid() -user id
geteuid() -effective user id

Explain fork() system call.


The `fork()' used to create a new process from an existing process. The new process is called the child process, and the existing process is called the parent. We can tell which is which by checking the return value from `fork()'. The parent gets the child's pid returned to him, but the child gets 0 returned to him.
Predict the output of the following program code

printf("Hello World!");


Hello World!Hello World!


The fork creates a child that is a duplicate of the parent process. The child begins from the fork().All the statements after the call to fork() will be executed twice.(once by the parent process and other by child). The statement before fork() is executed only by the parent process.

Predict the output of the following program code

fork(); fork(); fork();
printf("Hello World!");


"Hello World" will be printed 8 times.


2^n times where n is the number of calls to fork()

List the system calls used for process management:


System calls Description

fork() To create a new process
exec() To execute a new program in a process
wait() To wait until a created process completes its execution
exit() To exit from a process execution
getpid() To get a process identifier of the current process
getppid() To get parent process identifier
nice() To bias the existing priority of a process
brk() To increase/decrease the data segment size of a process

How can you get/set an environment variable from a program?:


Getting the value of an environment variable is done by using `getenv()'. Setting the value of an environment variable is done by using `putenv()'.

How can a parent and child process communicate?


A parent and child can communicate through any of the normal inter-process communication schemes (pipes, sockets, message queues, shared memory), but also have some special ways to communicate that take advantage of their relationship as a parent and child. One of the most obvious is that the parent can get the exit status of the child.

What is a zombie?


When a program forks and the child finishes before the parent, the kernel still keeps some of its information about the child in case the parent might need it - for example, the parent may need to check the child's exit status. To be able to get this information, the parent calls `wait()'; In the interval between the child terminating and the parent calling `wait()', the child is said to be a `zombie' (If you do `ps', the child will have a `Z' in its status field to indicate this.)

What are the process states in Unix?


As a process executes it changes state according to its circumstances. Unix processes have the following states:

Running : The process is either running or it is ready to run .
Waiting : The process is waiting for an event or for a resource.
Stopped : The process has been stopped, usually by receiving a signal.
Zombie : The process is dead but have not been removed from the process table.

What Happens when you execute a program?


When you execute a program on your UNIX system, the system creates a special environment for that program. This environment contains everything needed for the system to run the program as if no other program were running on the system. Each process has process context, which is everything that is unique about the state of the program you are currently running. Every time you execute a program the UNIX system does a fork, which performs a series of operations to create a process context and then execute your program in that context. The steps include the following:

Allocate a slot in the process table, a list of currently running programs kept by UNIX.
Assign a unique process identifier (PID) to the process.
iCopy the context of the parent, the process that requested the spawning of the new process.
Return the new PID to the parent process. This enables the parent process to examine or control the process directly. After the fork is complete, UNIX runs your program.

What Happens when you execute a command?


When you enter 'ls' command to look at the contents of your current working directory, UNIX does a series of things to create an environment for ls and the run it: The shell has UNIX perform a fork. This creates a new process that the shell will use to run the ls program. The shell has UNIX perform an exec of the ls program. This replaces the shell program and data with the program and data for ls and then starts running that new program. The ls program is loaded into the new process context, replacing the text and data of the shell. The ls program performs its task, listing the contents of the current directory.

What is a Daemon?


A daemon is a process that detaches itself from the terminal and runs, disconnected, in the background, waiting for requests and responding to them. It can also be defined as the background process that does not belong to a terminal session. Many system functions are commonly performed by daemons, including the sendmail daemon, which handles mail, and the NNTP daemon, which handles USENET news. Many other daemons may exist. Some of the most common daemons are:

init: Takes over the basic running of the system when the kernel has finished the boot process.

inetd: Responsible for starting network services that do not have their own stand-alone daemons. For example, inetd usually takes care of incoming rlogin, telnet, and ftp connections.

cron: Responsible for running repetitive tasks on a regular schedule.

What is 'ps' command for?


The ps command prints the process status for some or all of the running processes. The information given are the process identification number (PID),the amount of time that the process has taken to execute so far etc.

How would you kill a process?


The kill command takes the PID as one argument; this identifies which process to terminate. The PID of a process can be got using 'ps' command.

What is an advantage of executing a process in background?


The most common reason to put a process in the background is to allow you to do something else interactively without waiting for the process to complete. At the end of the command you add the special background symbol, &. This symbol tells your shell to execute the given command in the background.
Example: cp *.* ../backup& (cp is for copy)

How do you execute one program from within another?


The system calls used for low-level process creation are execlp() and execvp(). The execlp call overlays the existing program with the new one , runs that and exits. The original program gets back control only when an error occurs. execlp(path,file_name,arguments..); //last argument must be NULL A variant of execlp called execvp is used when the number of arguments is not known in advance. execvp(path,argument_array); //argument array should be terminated by NULL

What is IPC? What are the various schemes available?


The term IPC (Inter-Process Communication) describes various ways by which different process running on some operating system communicate between each other. Various schemes available are as follows: Pipes:
One-way communication scheme through which different process can communicate. The problem is that the two processes should have a common ancestor (parent-child relationship). However this problem was fixed with the introduction of named-pipes (FIFO).

Message Queues :

Message queues can be used between related and unrelated processes running on a machine.

Shared Memory:

This is the fastest of all IPC schemes. The memory to be shared is mapped into the address space of the processes (that are sharing). The speed achieved is attributed to the fact that there is no kernel involvement. But this scheme needs synchronization.
Various forms of synchronisation are mutexes, condition-variables, read-write locks, record-locks, and semaphores.

What is the difference between Swapping and Paging?


Swapping: Whole process is moved from the swap device to the main memory for execution. Process size must be less than or equal to the available main memory. It is easier to implementation and overhead to the system. Swapping systems does not handle the memory more flexibly as compared to the paging systems.


Only the required memory pages are moved to main memory from the swap device for execution. Process size does not matter. Gives the concept of the virtual memory.

It provides greater flexibility in mapping the virtual address space into the physical memory of the machine. Allows more number of processes to fit in the main memory simultaneously. Allows the greater process size than the available physical memory. Demand paging systems handle the memory more flexibly.

What is major difference between the Historic Unix and the new BSD release of Unix System V in terms of Memory Management?

Historic Unix uses Swapping – entire process is transferred to the main memory from the swap device, whereas the Unix System V uses Demand Paging – only the part of the process is moved to the main memory. Historic Unix uses one Swap Device and Unix System V allow multiple Swap Devices.

What is the main goal of the Memory Management?


It decides which process should reside in the main memory, Manages the parts of the virtual address space of a process which is non-core resident, Monitors the available main memory and periodically write the processes into the swap device to provide more processes fit in the main memory simultaneously.

What is a Map?


A Map is an Array, which contains the addresses of the free space in the swap device that are allocatable resources, and the number of the resource units available there.

This allows First-Fit allocation of contiguous blocks of a resource. Initially the Map contains one entry – address (block offset from the starting of the swap area) and the total number of resources. Kernel treats each unit of Map as a group of disk blocks. On the allocation and freeing of the resources Kernel updates the Map for accurate information.

What scheme does the Kernel in Unix System V follow while choosing a swap device among the multiple swap devices?


Kernel follows Round Robin scheme choosing a swap device among the multiple swap devices in Unix System V.

What is a Region?


A Region is a continuous area of a process’s address space (such as text, data and stack). The kernel in a ‘Region Table’ that is local to the process maintains region. Regions are sharable among the process.

What are the events done by the Kernel after a process is being swapped out from the main memory?


When Kernel swaps the process out of the primary memory, it performs the following:
Kernel decrements the Reference Count of each region of the process. If the reference count becomes zero, swaps the region out of the main memory,
Kernel allocates the space for the swapping process in the swap device,
Kernel locks the other swapping process while the current swapping operation is going on,
The Kernel saves the swap address of the region in the region table.

Is the Process before and after the swap are the same? Give reason.


Process before swapping is residing in the primary memory in its original form. The regions (text, data and stack) may not be occupied fully by the process, there may be few empty slots in any of the regions and while swapping Kernel do not bother about the empty slots while swapping the process out. After swapping the process resides in the swap (secondary memory) device. The regions swapped out will be present but only the occupied region slots but not the empty slots that were present before assigning. While swapping the process once again into the main memory, the Kernel referring to the Process Memory Map, it assigns the main memory accordingly taking care of the empty slots in the regions.

What do you mean by u-area (user area) or u-block?


This contains the private data that is manipulated only by the Kernel. This is local to the Process, i.e. each process is allocated a u-area.

What are the entities that are swapped out of the main memory while swapping the process out of the main memory ?


All memory space occupied by the process, process’s u-area, and Kernel stack are swapped out, theoretically. Practically, if the process’s u-area contains the Address Translation Tables for the process then Kernel implementations do not swap the u-area.

What is Fork swap?


fork() is a system call to create a child process. When the parent process calls fork() system call, the child process is created and if there is short of memory then the child process is sent to the read-to-run state in the swap device, and return to the user state without swapping the parent process. When the memory will be available the child process will be swapped into the main memory.

What is Expansion swap?


At the time when any process requires more memory than it is currently allocated, the Kernel performs Expansion swap. To do this Kernel reserves enough space in the swap device. Then the address translation mapping is adjusted for the new virtual address space but the physical memory is not allocated. At last Kernel swaps the process into the assigned space in the swap device. Later when the Kernel swaps the process into the main memory this assigns memory according to the new address translation mapping.

How the Swapper works?


The swapper is the only process that swaps the processes. The Swapper operates only in the Kernel mode and it does not uses System calls instead it uses internal Kernel functions for swapping. It is the archetype of all kernel process.

What are the processes that are not bothered by the swapper? Give Reason.


Zombie process: They do not take any up physical memory.
Processes locked in memories that are updating the region of the process.
Kernel swaps only the sleeping processes rather than the ‘ready-to-run’ processes, as they have the higher probability of being scheduled than the Sleeping processes.

What are the requirements for a swapper to work?


The swapper works on the highest scheduling priority. Firstly it will look for any sleeping process, if not found then it will look for the ready-to-run process for swapping. But the major requirement for the swapper to work the ready-to-run process must be core-resident for at least 2 seconds before swapping out. And for swapping in the process must have been resided in the swap device for at least 2 seconds. If the requirement is not satisfied then the swapper will go into the wait state on that event and it is awaken once in a second by the Kernel.

What are the criteria for choosing a process for swapping into memory from the swap device?

The resident time of the processes in the swap device, the priority of the processes and the amount of time the processes had been swapped out.

What are the criteria for choosing a process for swapping out of the memory to the swap device?


The process’s memory resident time,
Priority of the process and
The nice value.

What do you mean by nice value?


Nice value is the value that controls {increments or decrements} the priority of the process. This value that is returned by the nice () system call. The equation for using nice value is: Priority = (“recent CPU usage”/constant) + (base- priority) + (nice value) Only the administrator can supply the nice value. The nice () system call works for the running process only. Nice value of one process cannot affect the nice value of the other process.

What are conditions on which deadlock can occur while swapping the processes?


All processes in the main memory are asleep.
All ‘ready-to-run’ processes are swapped out.
There is no space in the swap device for the new incoming process that are swapped out of the main memory.
There is no space in the main memory for the new incoming process.

What are conditions for a machine to support Demand Paging?


Memory architecture must based on Pages,
The machine must support the ‘restartable’ instructions.

What is ‘the principle of locality’?


It’s the nature of the processes that they refer only to the small subset of the total data space of the process. i.e. the process frequently calls the same subroutines or executes the loop instructions.

What is the working set of a process?

The set of pages that are referred by the process in the last ‘n’, references, where ‘n’ is called the window of the working set of the process.

What is the window of the working set of a process?


The window of the working set of a process is the total number in which the process had referred the set of pages in the working set of the process.

What is called a page fault?


Page fault is referred to the situation when the process addresses a page in the working set of the process but the process fails to locate the page in the working set. And on a page fault the kernel updates the working set by reading the page from the secondary device.

What are data structures that are used for Demand Paging?

Kernel contains 4 data structures for Demand paging. They are,
Page table entries,
Disk block descriptors,
Page frame data table (pfdata),
Swap-use table.

What are the bits that support the demand paging?


Valid, Reference, Modify, Copy on write, Age. These bits are the part of the page table entry, which includes physical address of the page and protection bits.
Page address
Copy on write

How the Kernel handles the fork() system call in traditional Unix and in the System V Unix, while swapping?


Kernel in traditional Unix, makes the duplicate copy of the parent’s address space and attaches it to the child’s process, while swapping. Kernel in System V Unix, manipulates the region tables, page table, and pfdata table entries, by incrementing the reference count of the region table of shared regions.

Difference between the fork() and vfork() system call?


During the fork() system call the Kernel makes a copy of the parent process’s address space and attaches it to the child process. But the vfork() system call do not makes any copy of the parent’s address space, so it is faster than the fork() system call. The child process as a result of the vfork() system call executes exec() system call. The child process from vfork() system call executes in the parent’s address space (this can overwrite the parent’s data and stack ) which suspends the parent process until the child process

What is BSS(Block Started by Symbol)?


A data representation at the machine level, that has initial values when a program starts and tells about how much space the kernel allocates for the un-initialized data. Kernel initializes it to zero at run-time.

What is Page-Stealer process?


This is the Kernel process that makes rooms for the incoming pages, by swapping the memory pages that are not the part of the working set of a process. Page-Stealer is created by the Kernel at the system initialization and invokes it throughout the lifetime of the system. Kernel locks a region when a process faults on a page in the region, so that page stealer cannot steal the page, which is being faulted in.

Name two paging states for a page in memory?


The two paging states are:

The page is aging and is not yet eligible for swapping,
The page is eligible for swapping but not yet eligible for reassignment to other virtual address space.

What are the phases of swapping a page from the memory?


Page stealer finds the page eligible for swapping and places the page number in the list of pages to be swapped. Kernel copies the page to a swap device when necessary and clears the valid bit in the page table entry, decrements the pfdata reference count, and places the pfdata table entry at the end of the free list if its reference count is 0.

What is page fault? Its types?


Page fault refers to the situation of not having a page in the main memory when any process references it. There are two types of page fault :

Validity fault,
Protection fault.

In what way the Fault Handlers and the Interrupt handlers are different?


Fault handlers are also an interrupt handler with an exception that the interrupt handlers cannot sleep. Fault handlers sleep in the context of the process that caused the memory fault. The fault refers to the running process and no arbitrary processes are put to sleep.

What is validity fault?


If a process referring a page in the main memory whose valid bit is not set, it results in validity fault. The valid bit is not set for those pages:

that are outside the virtual address space of a process,
that are the part of the virtual address space of the process but no physical address is assigned to it.

What does the swapping system do if it identifies the illegal page for swapping?


If the disk block descriptor does not contain any record of the faulted page, then this causes the attempted memory reference is invalid and the kernel sends a “Segmentation violation” signal to the offending process. This happens when the swapping system identifies any invalid memory reference.

What are states that the page can be in, after causing a page fault?


On a swap device and not in memory,
On the free page list in the main memory,
In an executable file,
Marked “demand zero”,
Marked “demand fill”.

In what way the validity fault handler concludes?


It sets the valid bit of the page by clearing the modify bit.
It recalculates the process priority.

At what mode the fault handler executes?

At the Kernel Mode.

What do you mean by the protection fault?


Protection fault refers to the process accessing the pages, which do not have the access permission. A process also incur the protection fault when it attempts to write a page whose copy on write bit was set during the fork() system call.

How the Kernel handles the copy on write bit of a page, when the bit is set?


In situations like, where the copy on write bit of a page is set and that page is shared by more than one process, the Kernel allocates new page and copies the content to the new page and the other processes retain their references to the old page. After copying the Kernel updates the page table entry with the new page number. Then Kernel decrements the reference count of the old pfdata table entry. In cases like, where the copy on write bit is set and no processes are sharing the page, the Kernel allows the physical page to be reused by the processes. By doing so, it clears the copy on write bit and disassociates the page from its disk copy (if one exists), because other process may share the disk copy. Then it removes the pfdata table entry from the page-queue as the new copy of the virtual page is not on the swap device. It decrements the swap-use count for the page and if count drops to 0, frees the swap space.

For which kind of fault the page is checked first?


The page is first checked for the validity fault, as soon as it is found that the page is invalid (valid bit is clear), the validity fault handler returns immediately, and the process incur the validity page fault. Kernel handles the validity fault and the process will incur the protection fault if any one is present.

In what way the protection fault handler concludes?


After finishing the execution of the fault handler, it sets the modify and protection bits and clears the copy on write bit. It recalculates the process-priority and checks for signals.

How the Kernel handles both the page stealer and the fault handler?


The page stealer and the fault handler thrash because of the shortage of the memory. If the sum of the working sets of all processes is greater that the physical memory then the fault handler will usually sleep because it cannot allocate pages for a process. This results in the reduction of the system throughput because Kernel spends too much time in overhead, rearranging the memory in the frantic pace.

Explain different types of Unix systems.


The most widely used are: 1. System V (AT&T) 2. AIX (IBM) 3. BSD (Berkeley) 4. Solaris (Sun) 5. Xenix ( A PC version of Unix)

Explain kernel and shell.


Kernal: It carries out basic operating system functions such as allocating memory, accessing files and handling communications.

Shell:A shell provides the user interface to the kernel.There are 3 major shells : C-shell, Bourne shell , Korn shell

What is ex and vi ?

ex is Unix line editor and vi is the standard Unix screen editor.

Which are typical system directories below the root directory?


(1)/bin: contains many programs which will be executed by users (2)/etc : files used by administrator (3)/dev: hardware devices (4)/lib: system libraries (5)/usr: application software (6)/home: home directories for different systems.

Construct pipes to execute the following jobs.


1. Output of who should be displayed on the screen with value of total number of users who have logged in displayed at the bottom of the list.

2. Output of ls should be displayed on the screen and from this output the lines containing the word ‘poem’ should be counted and the count should be stored in a file.

3. Contents of file1 and file2 should be displayed on the screen and this output should be appended in a file
.From output of ls the lines containing ‘poem’ should be displayed on the screen along with the count.

4. Name of cities should be accepted from the keyboard . This list should be combined with the list present in a file. This combined list should be sorted and the sorted list should be stored in a file ‘newcity’.

5. All files present in a directory dir1 should be deleted any error while deleting should be stored in a file ‘errorlog’.

What is the significance of the “tee” command?


It reads the standard input and sends it to the standard output while redirecting a copy of what it has read to the file specified by the user.

What does the command “ $who | sort –logfile > newfile” do?


The input from a pipe can be combined with the input from a file . The trick is to use the special symbol “-“ (a hyphen) for those commands that recognize the hyphen as std input.
In the above command the output from who becomes the std input to sort , meanwhile sort opens the file logfile, the contents of this file is sorted together with the output of who (rep by the hyphen) and the sorted output is redirected to the file newfile.

What does the command “$ls | wc –l > file1” do?


ls becomes the input to wc which counts the number of lines it receives as input and instead of displaying this count , the value is stored in file1.

Explain the steps that a shell follows while processing a command.


After the command line is terminated by the key, the shell goes ahead with processing the command line in one or more passes. The sequence is well defined and assumes the following order.

Parsing: The shell first breaks up the command line into words, using spaces and the delimiters, unless quoted. All consecutive occurrences of a space or tab are replaced here with a single space.

Variable evaluation: All words preceded by a $ are evaluated as variables, unless quoted or escaped.

Command substitution: Any command surrounded by back quotes is executed by the shell which then replaces the standard output of the command into the command line.

Wild-card interpretation: The shell finally scans the command line for wild-cards (the characters *, ?, [, ]).

Any word containing a wild-card is replaced by a sorted list of
filenames that match the pattern. The list of these filenames then forms the arguments to the command.

PATH evaluation: It finally looks for the PATH variable to determine the sequence of directories it has to search in order to hunt for the command.

What difference between cmp and diff commands?


cmp - Compares two files byte by byte and displays the first mismatch diff - tells the changes to be made to make the files identical

What is the use of ‘grep’ command?


‘grep’ is a pattern search command. It searches for the pattern, specified in the command line with appropriate option, in a file(s).

Syntax : grep

Example : grep 99sk skpmcafile

What is the difference between cat and more command?


Cat displays file contents. If the file is large the contents scroll off the screen before we view it. So command 'more' is like a pager which displays the contents page by page.

Write a command to kill the last background job?


Kill $!

Which command is used to delete all files in the current directory and all its sub-directories?


rm -r *

Write a command to display a file’s contents in various formats?


$od -cbd file_name
c - character, b - binary (octal), d-decimal, od=Octal Dump.

What will the following command do?


$ echo *
It is similar to 'ls' command and displays all the files in the current directory.

Is it possible to create new a file system in UNIX?

Yes, ‘mkfs’ is used to create a new file system.

Is it possible to restrict incoming message?


Yes, using the ‘mesg’ command.

What is the use of the command "ls -x chapter[1-5]"

ls stands for list; so it displays the list of the files that starts with 'chapter' with suffix '1' to '5', chapter1, chapter2, and so on.

Is ‘du’ a command? If so, what is its use?


Yes, it stands for ‘disk usage’. With the help of this command you can find the disk capacity and free space of the disk.

Is it possible to count number char, line in a file; if so, How?


Yes, wc-stands for word count.
wc -c for counting number of characters in a file.
wc -l for counting lines in a file.

Name the data structure used to maintain file identification?


‘inode’, each file has a separate inode and a unique inode number.

How many prompts are available in a UNIX system?


Two prompts, PS1 (Primary Prompt), PS2 (Secondary Prompt).

How does the kernel differentiate device files and ordinary files?


Kernel checks 'type' field in the file's inode structure.

How to switch to a super user status to gain privileges?


Use ‘su’ command. The system asks for password and when valid entry is made the user gains super user (admin) privileges.

What are shell variables?


Shell variables are special variables, a name-value pair created and maintained by the shell.
Example: PATH, HOME, MAIL and TERM

What is redirection?


Directing the flow of data to the file or from the file for input or output.
Example : ls > wc

How to terminate a process which is running and the specialty on command kill 0?


With the help of kill command we can terminate the process.

Syntax: kill pid

Kill 0 - kills all processes in your system except the login shell.

What is a pipe and give an example?


A pipe is two or more commands separated by pipe char '|'. That tells the shell to arrange for the output of the preceding command to be passed as input to the following command.

Example : ls -l | pr

The output for a command ls is the standard input of pr.

When a sequence of commands are combined using pipe, then it is called pipeline.

Explain kill() and its possible return values.


There are four possible results from this call:
‘kill()’ returns 0. This implies that a process exists with the given PID, and the system would allow you to send signals to it. It is system-dependent whether the process could be a zombie.

‘kill()’ returns -1, ‘errno == ESRCH’ either no process exists with the given PID, or security enhancements are causing the system to deny its existence. (On some systems, the process could be a zombie.)

‘kill()’ returns -1, ‘errno == EPERM’ the system would not allow you to kill the specified process. This means that either the process exists (again, it could be a zombie) or draconian security enhancements are present (e.g. your process is not allowed to send signals to *anybody*).

‘kill()’ returns -1, with some other value of ‘errno’ you are in trouble! The most-used technique is to assume that success or failure with ‘EPERM’ implies that the process exists, and any other error implies that it doesn't.

An alternative exists, if you are writing specifically for a system (or all those systems) that provide a ‘/proc’ filesystem: checking for the existence of ‘/proc/PID’ may work.

What is LILO?
LILO stands for Linux boot loader. It will load the MBR, master boot record, into the memory, and tell the system which partition and hard drive to boot from.
What is the main advantage of creating links to a file instead of copies of the file?
A: The main advantage is not really that it saves disk space (though it does that too) but, rather, that a change of permissions on the file is applied to all the link access points. The link will show permissions of lrwxrwxrwx but that is for the link itself and not the access to the file to which the link points. Thus if you want to change the permissions for a command, such as su, you only have to do it on the original. With copies you have to find all of the copies and change permission on each of the copies.
Write a command to find all of the files which have been accessed within the last 30 days.
find / -type f -atime -30 > December.files
This command will find all the files under root, which is ‘/’, with file type is file. ‘-atime -30′ will give all the files accessed less than 30 days ago. And the output will put into a file call December.files.
What is the most graceful way to get to run level single user mode?
A: The most graceful way is to use the command init s.
If you want to shut everything down before going to single user mode then do init 0 first and from the ok prompt do a boot -s.
What does the following command line produce? Explain each aspect of this line.
$ (date ; ps -ef | awk ‘{print $1}’ | sort | uniq | wc -l ) >> Activity.log
A: First let’s dissect the line: The date gives the date and time as the first command of the line, this is followed by the a list of all running processes in long form with UIDs listed first, this is the ps -ef. These are fed into the awk which filters out all but the UIDs; these UIDs are piped into sort for no discernible reason and then onto uniq (now we see the reason for the sort - uniq only works on sorted data - if the list is A, B, A, then A, B, A will be the output of uniq, but if it’s A, A, B then A, B is the output) which produces only one copy of each UID.
These UIDs are fed into wc -l which counts the lines - in this case the number of distinct UIDs running processes on the system. Finally the results of these two commands, the date and the wc -l, are appended to the file "Activity.log". Now to answer the question as to what this command line produces. This writes the date and time into the file Activity.log together with the number of distinct users who have processes running on the system at that time. If the file already exists, then these items are appended to the file, otherwise the file is created.

How to Configure YUM repository in RHEL 5

Installing packages and configuring Servers we need to configure the YellowDog Update Manager (YUM)

1 If its local repository then
Install Package createrepo ( this pacakge is present in RHEL 5 dvd in Server folder)

RPM -ivh createrepo

createrepo -v /var/ftp/pub/Server

/var/ftp/pub/Server => this is the directory where local copy of RPM packages are there

Edit the Server.repo file
# vi Server.repo
name= redhat

Save the file and quit
#yum clean all
#yum update

Now you can install packages
#yum install package-name

Computer Training
2 If repository is present in server
#cd /etc/yum.repos.d

Then it will list the files. There is a file with name rhel-debuginfo.repo. Copy this file to a temp file with name Sever.repo. The starting letter of Server should be Capital.
Second step is given below

#cp rhel-debuginfo.repo Server.repo
The Third and final steps
Edit the Server.repo file
# vi Server.repo
[name= redhat]
[baseurl=] ( eg: IP address : (the server IP)

Save the file and quit
#yum clean all
#yum update

Now you can install packages
#yum install package-name

Configuring YUM behind the HTTP proxy

Under Normal Conditions yum dont work if you are suing internet behind proxy

So in yum.conf add
#The proxy server or IP address:port number


Below one if you use ( username/password)



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